Using arrays or std::vectors in C++, what's the performance gap?


Question

In our C++ course they suggest not to use C++ arrays on new projects anymore. As far as I know Stroustroup himself suggests not to use arrays. But are there significant performance differences?

1
193
4/6/2009 4:24:36 PM

Accepted Answer

Using C++ arrays with new (that is, using dynamical arrays) should be avoided. There is the problem you have to keep track of the size, and you need to delete them manually, and do all sort of housekeeping.

Using arrays on the stack is also discouraged because you don't have range checking, and passing the array around will lose any information about its size (array to pointer conversion). You should use boost::array in that case, which wraps a C++ array in a small class and provides a size function and iterators to iterate over it.

Now the std::vector vs. native C++ arrays (taken from the internet):

// Comparison of assembly code generated for basic indexing, dereferencing, 
// and increment operations on vectors and arrays/pointers.

// Assembly code was generated by gcc 4.1.0 invoked with  g++ -O3 -S  on a 
// x86_64-suse-linux machine.

#include <vector>

struct S
{
  int padding;

  std::vector<int> v;
  int * p;
  std::vector<int>::iterator i;
};

int pointer_index (S & s) { return s.p[3]; }
  // movq    32(%rdi), %rax
  // movl    12(%rax), %eax
  // ret

int vector_index (S & s) { return s.v[3]; }
  // movq    8(%rdi), %rax
  // movl    12(%rax), %eax
  // ret

// Conclusion: Indexing a vector is the same damn thing as indexing a pointer.

int pointer_deref (S & s) { return *s.p; }
  // movq    32(%rdi), %rax
  // movl    (%rax), %eax
  // ret

int iterator_deref (S & s) { return *s.i; }
  // movq    40(%rdi), %rax
  // movl    (%rax), %eax
  // ret

// Conclusion: Dereferencing a vector iterator is the same damn thing 
// as dereferencing a pointer.

void pointer_increment (S & s) { ++s.p; }
  // addq    $4, 32(%rdi)
  // ret

void iterator_increment (S & s) { ++s.i; }
  // addq    $4, 40(%rdi)
  // ret

// Conclusion: Incrementing a vector iterator is the same damn thing as 
// incrementing a pointer.

Note: If you allocate arrays with new and allocate non-class objects (like plain int) or classes without a user defined constructor and you don't want to have your elements initialized initially, using new-allocated arrays can have performance advantages because std::vector initializes all elements to default values (0 for int, for example) on construction (credits to @bernie for remembering me).

184
5/13/2017 9:21:01 PM

Preamble for micro-optimizer people

Remember:

"Programmers waste enormous amounts of time thinking about, or worrying about, the speed of noncritical parts of their programs, and these attempts at efficiency actually have a strong negative impact when debugging and maintenance are considered. We should forget about small efficiencies, say about 97% of the time: premature optimization is the root of all evil. Yet we should not pass up our opportunities in that critical 3%".

(Thanks to metamorphosis for the full quote)

Don't use a C array instead of a vector (or whatever) just because you believe it's faster as it is supposed to be lower-level. You would be wrong.

Use by default vector (or the safe container adapted to your need), and then if your profiler says it is a problem, see if you can optimize it, either by using a better algorithm, or changing container.

This said, we can go back to the original question.

Static/Dynamic Array?

The C++ array classes are better behaved than the low-level C array because they know a lot about themselves, and can answer questions C arrays can't. They are able to clean after themselves. And more importantly, they are usually written using templates and/or inlining, which means that what appears to a lot of code in debug resolves to little or no code produced in release build, meaning no difference with their built-in less safe competition.

All in all, it falls on two categories:

Dynamic arrays

Using a pointer to a malloc-ed/new-ed array will be at best as fast as the std::vector version, and a lot less safe (see litb's post).

So use a std::vector.

Static arrays

Using a static array will be at best:

  • as fast as the std::array version
  • and a lot less safe.

So use a std::array.

Uninitialized memory

Sometimes, using a vector instead of a raw buffer incurs a visible cost because the vector will initialize the buffer at construction, while the code it replaces didn't, as remarked bernie by in his answer.

If this is the case, then you can handle it by using a unique_ptr instead of a vector or, if the case is not exceptional in your codeline, actually write a class buffer_owner that will own that memory, and give you easy and safe access to it, including bonuses like resizing it (using realloc?), or whatever you need.


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