Returning a const reference to an object instead of a copy


Whilst refactoring some code I came across some getter methods that returns a std::string. Something like this for example:

class foo
    std::string name_;
    std::string name()
        return name_;

Surely the getter would be better returning a const std::string&? The current method is returning a copy which isn't as efficient. Would returning a const reference instead cause any problems?

9/25/2008 5:33:15 PM

Accepted Answer

The only way this can cause a problem is if the caller stores the reference, rather than copy the string, and tries to use it after the object is destroyed. Like this:

foo *pFoo = new foo;
const std::string &myName = pFoo->getName();
delete pFoo;
cout << myName;  // error! dangling reference

However, since your existing function returns a copy, then you would not break any of the existing code.

6/15/2017 8:36:16 AM

Actually, another issue specifically with returning a string not by reference, is the fact that std::string provides access via pointer to an internal const char* via the c_str() method. This has caused me many hours of debugging headache. For instance, let's say I want to get the name from foo, and pass it to JNI to be used to construct a jstring to pass into Java later on, and that name() is returning a copy and not a reference. I might write something like this:

foo myFoo = getFoo(); // Get the foo from somewhere.
const char* fooCName =; // Woops! creates a temporary that's destructed as soon as this line executes!
jniEnv->NewStringUTF(fooCName);  // No good, fooCName was released when the temporary was deleted.

If your caller is going to be doing this kind of thing, it might be better to use some type of smart pointer, or a const reference, or at the very least have a nasty warning comment header over your method. I mention JNI because former Java coders might be particularly vulnerable to this type of method chaining that may seem otherwise harmless.

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