Say you have a collection of elements, how can you pick out those with duplicates and put them into each group with least amount of comparison? preferably in C++, but algorithm is more important than the language. For Example given {E1,E2,E3,E4,E4,E2,E6,E4,E3}, I wish to extract out {E2,E2}, {E3,E3}, {E4,E4,E4}. what data structure and algorithm you will choose? Please also include the cost of setting up the data structure, say, if it's a pre-sorted one like std::multimap

To make things clearer as suggested. there's one constraint: **the elements must be compared by themselves** to be certain they are duplicates.

So hashes do not apply, because virtually they shift the comparison to from heavy elements(e.g. chunks of data) to light elements(integers), and reduce some comparison, but not do away with them, and in the end, we are back to our original problem, when are inside one collision bucket.

Pretend you have a bunch of potentials duplicate files of GBs each, they bear the same hash value by every hash-algorithm human beings know. Now you are going to spot the real duplicates.

No, it can't be a real-life problem(even MD5 is enough to generate unique hash for real-life files). But just pretend so that we can **focus on finding the data structure + algorithm that involves least amount of comparison**.

What I am doing is to

represent into a STL std::list data structure(in that 1) its element-deletion is cheaper than, say, a vector 2) its insertion is cheaper, not requiring sort.)

pop out one element and compare it with the rest, if a duplicate is found, it's pulled out of the list. once the end of the list is reached, one group of duplication is found, if any.

repeat the above 2 steps until the list is empty.

It needs N-1 in the best case, but (N-1)! in the worse case.

what are the better alternatives?

My code using method explained above:

```
// algorithm to consume the std::list container,
// supports: list<path_type>,list< pair<std::string, paths_type::const_iterater>>
template<class T>
struct consume_list
{
groups_type operator()(list<T>& l)
{
// remove spurious identicals and group the rest
// algorithm:
// 1. compare the first element with the remaining elements,
// pick out all duplicated files including the first element itself.
// 2. start over again with the shrinked list
// until the list contains one or zero elements.
groups_type sub_groups;
group_type one_group;
one_group.reserve(1024);
while(l.size() > 1)
{
T front(l.front());
l.pop_front();
item_predicate<T> ep(front);
list<T>::iterator it = l.begin();
list<T>::iterator it_end = l.end();
while(it != it_end)
{
if(ep.equals(*it))
{
one_group.push_back(ep.extract_path(*(it))); // single it out
it = l.erase(it);
}
else
{
it++;
}
}
// save results
if(!one_group.empty())
{
// save
one_group.push_back(ep.extract_path(front));
sub_groups.push_back(one_group);
// clear, memory allocation not freed
one_group.clear();
}
}
return sub_groups;
}
};
// type for item-item comparison within a stl container, e.g. std::list
template <class T>
struct item_predicate{};
// specialization for type path_type
template <>
struct item_predicate<path_type>
{
public:
item_predicate(const path_type& base)/*init list*/
{}
public:
bool equals(const path_type& comparee)
{
bool result;
/* time-consuming operations here*/
return result;
}
const path_type& extract_path(const path_type& p)
{
return p;
}
private:
// class members
};
};
```

Thanks for the answer below, however they seem to be misled by my example that it's about integers. In fact **the elements are type agnostic(not necessarily integers, strings or any other PODs)**, and the equal predicates are self-defined, that is **the comparison can be very heavy**.

**So maybe my question should be: using which data structure + algorithm involves fewer comparisons.**

Using a pre-sorted container like multiset, multimap is not better according to my test, since

- the sorting while inserting already does the comparisons,
- the following adjacent finding does comparison again,
- these data structure prefer less-than operations to equal operations, they perform 2 less-than(a

I do not see how it can save comparisons.

one more thing that's ignored by some answers below, I need to differentiate the duplicate groups from one another, not just keep them in the container.

After all the discussion, there seem to be 3 ways

- my original naive method as explained above
- Start with a linear container like
`std::vector`

, sort it and then locate the equal ranges - start with an associated container like
`std::map<Type, vector<duplicates>>`

, pick out the duplicates during the setup of associated container as suggested by Charles Bailey.

I've coded a sample to test all the methods as posted below.

the number of duplicates and when they are distributed may influence the best choice.

- Method 1 is best when they fall heavily at the front, and is worst when at the end. Sort will not change the distribution, but the endian.
- Method 3 has the most average performance
- Method 2 is never the best choice

one output with 20 sample items from the code below.

Test with [ 20 10 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ]

and [ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 10 20 ] respectively

using std::vector -> sort() -> adjacent_find():

comparisons: [ '<' = 139, '==' = 23 ]

comparisons: [ '<' = 38, '==' = 23 ]

using std::list -> sort() -> shrink list:

comparisons: [ '<' = 50, '==' = 43 ]

comparisons: [ '<' = 52, '==' = 43 ]

using std::list -> shrink list:

comparisons: [ '<' = 0, '==' = 121 ]

comparisons: [ '<' = 0, '==' = 43 ]

using std::vector -> std::map>:

comparisons: [ '<' = 79, '==' = 0 ]

comparisons: [ '<' = 53, '==' = 0 ]

using std::vector -> std::multiset -> adjacent_find():

comparisons: [ '<' = 79, '==' = 7 ]

comparisons: [ '<' = 53, '==' = 7 ]

## Code

```
// compile with VC++10: cl.exe /EHsc
#include <vector>
#include <deque>
#include <list>
#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <boost/foreach.hpp>
#include <boost/tuple/tuple.hpp>
#include <boost/format.hpp>
using namespace std;
struct Type
{
Type(int i) : m_i(i){}
bool operator<(const Type& t) const
{
++number_less_than_comparison;
return m_i < t.m_i;
}
bool operator==(const Type& t) const
{
++number_equal_comparison;
return m_i == t.m_i;
}
public:
static void log(const string& operation)
{
cout
<< "comparison during " <<operation << ": [ "
<< "'<' = " << number_less_than_comparison
<< ", "
<< "'==' = " << number_equal_comparison
<< " ]\n";
reset();
}
int to_int() const
{
return m_i;
}
private:
static void reset()
{
number_less_than_comparison = 0;
number_equal_comparison = 0;
}
public:
static size_t number_less_than_comparison;
static size_t number_equal_comparison;
private:
int m_i;
};
size_t Type::number_less_than_comparison = 0;
size_t Type::number_equal_comparison = 0;
ostream& operator<<(ostream& os, const Type& t)
{
os << t.to_int();
return os;
}
template< class Container >
struct Test
{
void recursive_run(size_t n)
{
bool reserve_order = false;
for(size_t i = 48; i < n; ++i)
{
run(i);
}
}
void run(size_t i)
{
cout <<
boost::format("\n\nTest %1% sample elements\nusing method%2%:\n")
% i
% Description();
generate_sample(i);
sort();
locate();
generate_reverse_sample(i);
sort();
locate();
}
private:
void print_me(const string& when)
{
std::stringstream ss;
ss << when <<" = [ ";
BOOST_FOREACH(const Container::value_type& v, m_container)
{
ss << v << " ";
}
ss << "]\n";
cout << ss.str();
}
void generate_sample(size_t n)
{
m_container.clear();
for(size_t i = 1; i <= n; ++i)
{
m_container.push_back(Type(n/i));
}
print_me("init value");
Type::log("setup");
}
void generate_reverse_sample(size_t n)
{
m_container.clear();
for(size_t i = 0; i < n; ++i)
{
m_container.push_back(Type(n/(n-i)));
}
print_me("init value(reverse order)");
Type::log("setup");
}
void sort()
{
sort_it();
Type::log("sort");
print_me("after sort");
}
void locate()
{
locate_duplicates();
Type::log("locate duplicate");
}
protected:
virtual string Description() = 0;
virtual void sort_it() = 0;
virtual void locate_duplicates() = 0;
protected:
Container m_container;
};
struct Vector : Test<vector<Type> >
{
string Description()
{
return "std::vector<Type> -> sort() -> adjacent_find()";
}
private:
void sort_it()
{
std::sort(m_container.begin(), m_container.end());
}
void locate_duplicates()
{
using std::adjacent_find;
typedef vector<Type>::iterator ITR;
typedef vector<Type>::value_type VALUE;
typedef boost::tuple<VALUE, ITR, ITR> TUPLE;
typedef vector<TUPLE> V_TUPLE;
V_TUPLE results;
ITR itr_begin(m_container.begin());
ITR itr_end(m_container.end());
ITR itr(m_container.begin());
ITR itr_range_begin(m_container.begin());
while(itr_begin != itr_end)
{
// find the start of one equal reange
itr = adjacent_find(
itr_begin,
itr_end,
[] (VALUE& v1, VALUE& v2)
{
return v1 == v2;
}
);
if(itr_end == itr) break; // end of container
// find the end of one equal reange
VALUE start = *itr;
while(itr != itr_end)
{
if(!(*itr == start)) break;
itr++;
}
results.push_back(TUPLE(start, itr_range_begin, itr));
// prepare for next iteration
itr_begin = itr;
}
}
};
struct List : Test<list<Type> >
{
List(bool sorted) : m_sorted(sorted){}
string Description()
{
return m_sorted ? "std::list -> sort() -> shrink list" : "std::list -> shrink list";
}
private:
void sort_it()
{
if(m_sorted) m_container.sort();////std::sort(m_container.begin(), m_container.end());
}
void locate_duplicates()
{
typedef list<Type>::value_type VALUE;
typedef list<Type>::iterator ITR;
typedef vector<VALUE> GROUP;
typedef vector<GROUP> GROUPS;
GROUPS sub_groups;
GROUP one_group;
while(m_container.size() > 1)
{
VALUE front(m_container.front());
m_container.pop_front();
ITR it = m_container.begin();
ITR it_end = m_container.end();
while(it != it_end)
{
if(front == (*it))
{
one_group.push_back(*it); // single it out
it = m_container.erase(it); // shrink list by one
}
else
{
it++;
}
}
// save results
if(!one_group.empty())
{
// save
one_group.push_back(front);
sub_groups.push_back(one_group);
// clear, memory allocation not freed
one_group.clear();
}
}
}
private:
bool m_sorted;
};
struct Map : Test<vector<Type>>
{
string Description()
{
return "std::vector -> std::map<Type, vector<Type>>" ;
}
private:
void sort_it() {}
void locate_duplicates()
{
typedef map<Type, vector<Type> > MAP;
typedef MAP::iterator ITR;
MAP local_map;
BOOST_FOREACH(const vector<Type>::value_type& v, m_container)
{
pair<ITR, bool> mit;
mit = local_map.insert(make_pair(v, vector<Type>(1, v)));
if(!mit.second) (mit.first->second).push_back(v);
}
ITR itr(local_map.begin());
while(itr != local_map.end())
{
if(itr->second.empty()) local_map.erase(itr);
itr++;
}
}
};
struct Multiset : Test<vector<Type>>
{
string Description()
{
return "std::vector -> std::multiset<Type> -> adjacent_find()" ;
}
private:
void sort_it() {}
void locate_duplicates()
{
using std::adjacent_find;
typedef set<Type> SET;
typedef SET::iterator ITR;
typedef SET::value_type VALUE;
typedef boost::tuple<VALUE, ITR, ITR> TUPLE;
typedef vector<TUPLE> V_TUPLE;
V_TUPLE results;
SET local_set;
BOOST_FOREACH(const vector<Type>::value_type& v, m_container)
{
local_set.insert(v);
}
ITR itr_begin(local_set.begin());
ITR itr_end(local_set.end());
ITR itr(local_set.begin());
ITR itr_range_begin(local_set.begin());
while(itr_begin != itr_end)
{
// find the start of one equal reange
itr = adjacent_find(
itr_begin,
itr_end,
[] (VALUE& v1, VALUE& v2)
{
return v1 == v2;
}
);
if(itr_end == itr) break; // end of container
// find the end of one equal reange
VALUE start = *itr;
while(itr != itr_end)
{
if(!(*itr == start)) break;
itr++;
}
results.push_back(TUPLE(start, itr_range_begin, itr));
// prepare for next iteration
itr_begin = itr;
}
}
};
int main()
{
size_t N = 20;
Vector().run(20);
List(true).run(20);
List(false).run(20);
Map().run(20);
Multiset().run(20);
}
```

You could use a map from a representative element to a list/vector/deque of other elements. This requires relatively fewer comparisons in insertion into the container and means that you can iterate through the resulting groups without having to perform any comparisons.

This example always inserts the first representative element into the mapped deque storage as it makes the subsequent iteration through the group logically simple, but if this duplication proves a problem then it would be easy to only perform the `push_back`

only `if (!ins_pair.second)`

.

```
typedef std::map<Type, std::deque<Type> > Storage;
void Insert(Storage& s, const Type& t)
{
std::pair<Storage::iterator, bool> ins_pair( s.insert(std::make_pair(t, std::deque<Type>())) );
ins_pair.first->second.push_back(t);
}
```

Iterating through the groups is then (relatively) simple and cheap:

```
void Iterate(const Storage& s)
{
for (Storage::const_iterator i = s.begin(); i != s.end(); ++i)
{
for (std::deque<Type>::const_iterator j = i->second.begin(); j != i->second.end(); ++j)
{
// do something with *j
}
}
}
```

I performed some experiments for comparison and object counts. In a test with 100000 objects in random order forming 50000 groups (i.e. and average of 2 objects per group) the above method cost the following number of comparisons and copies:

```
1630674 comparisons, 443290 copies
```

(I tried bringing the number of copies down, but only really managed to at the expense of comparisons which seem to be the higher cost operation in your scenario.)

Using a multimap, and retaining the previous element in the final iteration to detect the group transitions cost this:

```
1756208 comparisons, 100000 copies
```

Using a single list and popping the front element and performing a linear search for other group members cost:

```
1885879088 comparisons, 100000 copies
```

Yes, that's ~1.9b comparisons compared to ~1.6m for my best method. To get the list method to perform anywhere near an optimal number of comparisons it would have to be sorted and this is going to cost a similar number of comparisons as building an inherently ordered container would in the first place.

**Edit**

I took your posted code and ran the implied algorithm (I had to make some assumptions about the code as there as some assumed definitions) over the same test data set as I used before and I counted:

```
1885879088 comparisons, 420939 copies
```

i.e. exactly the same number of comparisons as my dumb list algorithm, but with more copies. I think that that means we using essentially similar algorithms for this case. I can't see any evidence of an alternative sort order, but it looks like you want a list of the groups which contain more than one equivalent elements. This can be simply achieved in my `Iterate`

function by adding in `if (i->size > 1)`

clause.

I still can't see any evidence that building a sorted container such as this map of deques isn't a good (even if not optimal) strategy.

Yes, you can do much better.

Sort them (O(n) for simple integers, O(n*log n) in general), then duplicates are guaranteed to be adjacent, making finding them quick O(n)

Use a hash table, also O(n). For each item, (a) check if it's already in the hash table; if so, its a duplicate; if not, put it in the hash table.

The method you're using seems to do O(N^2) comparisons:

```
for i = 0; i < length; ++i // will do length times
for j = i+1; j < length; ++j // will do length-i times
compare
```

So for length 5 you do 4+3+2+1=10 compares; for 6 you do 15, etc. (N^2)/2 - N/2 to be exact. N*log(N) is smaller, for any reasonably high value of N.

How big is N in your case?

As far as reducing hash collisions, the best way is to get a better hash function :-D. Assuming that is not possible, if you can make a variant (e.g., different modulous), you may be able to do a nested hash.

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