I am a new to professional development. I mean I have only 5 months of professional development experience. Before that I have studied it by myself or at university. So I was looking over questions and found here a question about code quality. And I got a question related to it myself. How do I increase my code understanding/reading skills? Also will it improve the code quality I will write? Is there better code notation than Hungarian one? And is there any really good books for C++ design patterns(or the language doesn't matter?)? Thank you in advance answering these questions and helping me improving :)
P.S. - Also I have forgot to tell you that I am developing with C++ and C# languages.
There is only way I've found to get better at reading other peoples code and that is read other peoples code, when you find a method or language construct you don't understand look it up and play with it until you understand what is going on.
Hungarian notation is terrible, very few people use it today, it's more of an in-joke among programmers.
In fact the name hungarian notation is a joke itself as:
"The term Hungarian notation is memorable for many people because the strings of unpronounceable consonants vaguely resemble the consonant-rich orthography of some Eastern European languages."
"Hungarian Notation is the tactical nuclear weapon of source code obfuscation techniques; use it! Due to the sheer volume of source code contaminated by this idiom nothing can kill a maintenance engineer faster than a well planned Hungarian Notation attack."
And the ever popular linus has a few words to say on the matter.
"Encoding the type of a function into the name (so-called Hungarian notation) is brain damaged—the compiler knows the types anyway and can check those, and it only confuses the programmer."
Taken from a comment by Tobias Langner.
"For the differences between Apss Hungarian and Systems Hungarian see Joel on Software".
Joel on Software has tips on how to read other people code called Reading Code is Like Reading the Talmud.
How do I increase my code understanding/reading skills?
Read read read. Learn from your mistakes. Review answers on SO and elsewhere. When you can think back on a piece of code you wrote and go "aha! I should've done xyz instead!" then you're learning. Read a good book for your language of choice, get beyond the basics and understand more advanced concepts.
Then, apart from reading: write write write! Coding is like math: you won't fully grock it without actually solving problems. Glancing at a math problem's solution is different than getting out a blank piece of paper and solving it yourself.
If you can, do some pair programming too to see how others code and bounce ideas around.
Also will it improve the code quality I will write?
See above. As you progress you should get more efficient. It won't happen by reading a book on design patterns. It will happen by solving real world problems and understanding why what you read works.
Is there better code notation than Hungarian one?
It depends. Generally I avoid them and use descriptive names. The one exception where I might use Hungarian type of notations is for UI elements such as Windows Forms or ASP.NET controls, for example: using btn as a prefix for a Submit button (btnSubmit), txt for a TextBox (txtFirstName), and so on but it differs from project to project depending on approach and patterns utilized.
With regards to UI elements, some people like to keep things alphabetical and may append the control type at the end, so the previous examples become submitButton and firstNameTextBox, respectively. In Windows Forms many people name forms as frmMain, which is Hungarian, while others prefer naming it based on the application name or form purpose, such as MainForm, ReportForm, etc.
EDIT: be sure to check out the difference between Apps Hungarian and Systems Hungarian as mentioned by @Tobias Langner in a comment to an earlier response.
Pascal Case is generally used for method names, classes, and properties, where the first letter of each word is capitalized. For local variables Camel Case is typically used, where the first letter of the first word is lowercase and subsequent words have their first letters capitalized.
And is there any really good books for C++ design patterns(or the language doesn't matter?)?
Design patterns should be applicable to any language. Once you understand the concept and the reasoning behind that pattern's usefulness you should be able to apply it in your language of choice. Of course, don't approach everything with a "written in stone" attitude; the pattern is the goal, the implementation might differ slightly between languages depending on language features available to you. Take the Decorator pattern for example, and see how C# extension methods allow it to be implemented differently than without it.
Design Pattern books:
Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software - classic gang of four (GOF)
Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture - Martin Fowler
If you're looking for best practices for quality coding in C++ and C# then look for the "Effective C++" and "More Effective C++" books (by Scott Meyers) and "Effective C#" and "More Effective C#" books (by Bill Wagner). They won't hold your hand along the way though, so you should have an understanding of the language in general. There are other books in the "Effective" series so make sure you see what's available for your languages.
I'm sure you can do a search here for other recommended reading so I'll stop here.
EDIT: added more details under the Hungarian Notation question.